In general, gynecomastia results from a hormonal imbalance in the body. All normal humans have both male and female hormones to a certain extent. Gynecomastia occurs when male hormones (androgens) are relatively low compared to the level of female hormones (estrogens) in the body. This can transiently occur during normal development of boys, resulting in gynecomastia in infants or during puberty. In these cases, gynecomastia usually resolves on its own as hormone levels return to normal.
In other cases, medical conditions or medical treatments can create the hormonal environment in the body that allows gynecomastia to develop. Examples of conditions that may be associated with gynecomastia include:
A wide range of medications have also been associated with the development of gynecomastia. Examples include the diuretic spironolactone (Aldactone), some calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitor drugs used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), some antibiotics, anti-ulcer drugs, and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV disease, which may cause fat redistribution leading to pseudogynecomastia or, in some cases, true gynecomastia.
Finally, alcohol and some drugs of abuse (for example, marijuana, and heroin) are known causes of gynecomastia. Lavender oil and tea tree oil, when used in skin-care products, have also been associated with gynecomastia. Continue Reading
The breast enlargement of gynecomastia is usually symmetrical in location with regard to the nipple and has a rubbery or firm feel. Both sides are typically affected, although it can develop on only one side. The enlargement may be greater on one side even if both sides are involved. Gynecomastia is not accompanied by severe pain, although the enlarged area may be sensitive or tender.
In contrast to gynecomastia, male breast cancer is usually located only on one side and is not necessarily centered around the nipple. Other symptoms suggestive of cancer include a hard or firm feeling to the tissue, dimpling of the skin, retraction of the nipple, nipple discharge, and enlargement of the underarm (axillary) lymph nodes.
If a male develops gynecomastia, it is appropriate to contact a health care practitioner. He or she may order tests to help determine the cause of gynecomastia. It is important to rule out any serious medical conditions that may be the cause of gynecomastia.
Gynecomastia is usually diagnosed by a physical examination. The presence of breast tissue greater than 0.5 cm in diameter is characteristic of gynecomastia. In addition to a physical examination, a careful medical history is also important to help assess the cause of gynecomastia.
The doctor may order tests, such as blood tests or imaging studies, to help establish the reason for gynecomastia. Mammography is indicated if there is any suspicion of male breast cancer.
Treatment of gynecomastia is not always necessary since transient gynecomastia, such as occurs during puberty, generally resolves on its own without treatment within three years. If medications are the cause of gynecomastia, stopping the offending drug can be effective in reducing gynecomastia. Treatment of any underlying medical conditions is also important. Both medications (see below) and surgery have been successfully used to treat gynecomastia.
A variety of chest compression garments and vests are available to help minimize discomfort and/or improve cosmetic appearance if desired.
Medications are most effective when used in the early stages of gynecomastia, because the enlarged breast tissue often becomes scarred after about 12 months. Medications are not likely to be effective at reducing scar tissue, and surgical removal is the only possible treatment.
Treatments for gynecomastia have not been extensively studied, so data showing their effectiveness are limited. No drugs have yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of gynecomastia. In general, two types of medications have shown promise for the management of gynecomastia: